CORDEX-EA

img Contact information

img  Song-You Hong (shong@yonsei.ac.kr),
  - Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Yonsei University, Room 544, Seoul 120-749, Korea.

img  Jiwoo Lee (jiwoolee@yonsei.ac.kr),
  - Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Yonsei University, Room 532, Seoul 120-749, Korea.
img1. Overall

We perform dynamical downscaling by utilizing a regional climate model (RCM), namely the Regional Spectral Model (RSM), which is also known as Regional Model Program (RMP) of the Global/Regional Integrated Model System (GRIMs; Hong et al., 2012). The dynamic frame of RMP is rooted in the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) RSM (Juang and Kanamitsu, 1994; Juang et al., 1997), and most of physical parameterizations are newly developed and adapted to the RMP. More detailed information about the GRIMs-RMP is provided by Hong et al. (2012), and evaluation and analyses of this dataset are provided by Lee et al. (2012).

img2. Domain and Resolution

The model domain includes East Asia, India, the Western Pacific Ocean, and the northern part of Australia, as shown in Fig. 1 and Table 1. This configuration of the model domain follows a protocol of the Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) for Asia (Giorgi et al., 2009). The number of grid points in Cartesian coordinates is 241 (west-east) by 198 (north-south), with a nominal horizontal resolution of 50 km. A 28-level terrain-following (sigma) vertical grid is used.

img3. Dynamics

The dynamic frame of RMP is rooted in the NCEP regional spectral model (RSM, Juang and Kanamitsu, 1994; Juang et al., 1997). The RMP is a perturbation model, and the spectral truncation to the perturbation tendency over the regional domain provides a wave selection that avoids waves longer than the regional domain. Thus, the large-scale wave longer than the regional domain from the coarse-grid or global model cannot be disturbed, during the entire period of integration (see Juang and Hong, 2001). Together with this unique dynamic feature of this model, the adaptation of the scale-selective bias correction method (SSBC, Kamamaru and Kanamitsu, 2007) with subsequent improvements (Kanamitsu et al., 2010; Hong and Chang, 2012) provides major advantages in long-term integration without significant synoptic-scale drift.

img4. Physics

The physics package of the RMP in this study is version 3.0, which employs the Simplified Arakawa?Schubert (SAS) convection scheme (Hong and Pan, 1998) for convective parameterization, a diagnostic microphysics scheme (Hong et al., 1998), the Yonsei University planetary boundary layer (YSUPBL) scheme (Hong et al., 2006), the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)?Oregon State University?US Air Force?National Weather Service Office of Hydrologic Development (NOAH) land surface model (Chen and Dudhia, 2001), and the shortwave (Chou, 1992) and long?wave (Chou et al., 1999) radiation parameterizations.

img5. Experimental Setup

The RMP experiments are conducted for 71 years; 26-year simulation for the current (1980-2005, hereafter: CUR) climate and two types of 45-year simulations for the future (2006-2050) climate. The current climate simulation, or CUR experiment, is driven from the historical run of the the Atmosphere-Ocean coupled Hadley Center Global Environmental Model version 2 (HadGEM2-AO) simulation of the National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) (Baek et al., 2012). For the future climate simulations, two different boundary conditions are downscaled using the RMP (hereafter: R45 and R85). They are driven by the HadGEM2-AO following the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5; Moss et al., 2010), respectively. The RCP 4.5 scenario is a stabilization scenario in which total radiative forcing is stabilized before 2100 through the employment of a range of technologies and strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (Thomson et al., 2011). The RCP 8.5 scenario is characterized by increasing greenhouse gas emissions over time and is representative of scenarios in the literature which result in high greenhouse gas concentration levels (Riahi et al., 2011). The R45 and R85 experiments are continuously simulated after the CUR experiment, thus the model does not need to be spun-up multiple times.

img6. References

  •        Climate change in the 21st Century simulated by HadGEM2-AO under representative concentration pathways. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos.
           Sci. (to be submitted).

  •        Coupling and advanced land surface-hydrology model with the Penn State-NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: Model
           implementation and sensitivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 569-585.

  •        A solar radiation model for use in climate studies, J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 762?772.

  •        Parameterization for cloud longwave scattering for use in atmospheric models. J. Climate, 12, 159?169.

  •       Addressing climate information needs at the regional level: The CORDEX framework. World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
          Bulletin, 58, 175-183.

  •        Convective Trigger Function for a Mass-Flux Cumulus Parameterization Scheme. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 2599?2620.

  •        Spectral Nudging Sensitivity Experiments in a Regional Climate Model. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos. Sci. (accepted).

  •        Implementation of Prognostic Cloud Scheme for a Regional Spectral Model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 2621?2639.

  •        A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 2318-2341,
           doi:10.1175/MWR3199.1.

  •        A Multi-Scale Atmospheric/Oceanic Modeling System: The Global/Regional Integrated Model system (GRIMs). Asia-Pacific J. Atmos.
           Sci. (in review).

  •        The NMC Nested Regional Spectral Model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 3-26.

  •        Sensitivity of the NCEP Regional Spectral Model to Domain Size and Nesting Strategy. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 2904-2922.

  •        The NCEP Regional Spectral Model: An Update. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 2125-2143.

  •        Scale-Selective Bias Correction in a Downscaling of Global Analysis Using a Regional Model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 334-350.

  •        Errors of Interannual Variability and Trend in Dynamical Downscaling of Reanalysis. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D17115.

  •        Dynamically Downscaled Future Climate Change over East Asia. Climatic Change (to be submitted).

  •        The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment. Nature, 463, 747-756.

  •        RCP 8.5?A scenario of comparatively high greenhouse gas emissions. Climatic Change, 109, 33-57, doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0149-y.

  •        RCP4.5: a pathway for stabilization of radiative forcing by 2100. Climatic Change, 109, 77-94. doi: 10.1007/s10584-011-0151-4.
Fig. 1. Model domain and orography (m).

Model domain and orography (m).

Pattern correlation (PC) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) scores of the precipitation (mm d−1) and 2-m temperature (°C) simulated from the HG2 and RMP against the CRU observation for 1980-2005.

CORDEX Domain
Map Projection Lambert Conformal
True latitude 55N, 15N
Domain center 118.96E, 22.04N
Horizontal resolution 50 km
Horizontal grid points 241 × 198
Δt 240s (180s for DJF)

img Contact information

img  Myoung-Seok Suh (sms416@kongju.ac.kr),
  - Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Kongju National University, 182 Shinkwan-dong, Gongju-city 314-701,     ChungCheongnam-do, South Korea.

img  Seok-Geun Oh (poet1535@kongju.ac.kr),
  - Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Kongju National University, 182 Shinkwan-dong, Gongju-city 314-701,     ChungCheongnam-do, South Korea.
img1. Overall

The Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) used in this study, developed by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), is the latest version with some noteworthy improvements, such as the coupling of a sophisticated land surface model, community land model 3 (http://www.ictp.it/research/esp/models/regcm4.aspx). Compared to RegCM3, RegCM4 includes new land surface, planetary boundary layer, and air-sea flux schemes, a mixed convection and tropical band configuration, modifications to the pre-existing radiative transfer and boundary layer schemes, and a full upgrade of the model code aimed towards improved flexibility, portability, and user friendliness. A detailed description of RegCM4 is given by Giorgi et al. (2012).

img2. Domain and Resolution

The model domain (Fig. 1), set based on the CORDEX-East Asia domain, covers most of Asia, the western Pacific, the Bay of Bengal, and the South China Sea. The number of grid points in Lambert Conformal map projection is 243 (west-east) by 197 (north-south), with a horizontal resolution of 50 km. A 18-sigma (74 hPa) vertical grid is used. A summary of simulation domain including the central latitude/longitude information and true latitudes is shown in Table 1.

img3. Dynamics

The basic model dynamics have remained the same as in RegCM3, which was essentially the same as that of the previous version RegCM2 (Giorgi et al. 1993a, b). RegCM4 is thus a hydrostatic, compressible, sigma-p vertical coordinate model run on an Arakawa B-grid in which wind and thermodynamical variables are horizontally staggered. A time-splitting explicit integration scheme is used in which the 2 fastest gravity modes are first separated from the model solution and then integrated with smaller time steps. This allows the use of a longer time step for the rest of the model. Essentially, the model dynamics are the same as that of the hydrostatic version of MM5 (Grell et al. 1994).

img4. Physics

In this study, the MIT-Emanuel (1991) cumulus parameterization scheme, which showed relatively better simulation in South Korea, is selected based on the one-year sensitivity experiment by Oh et al. (2011). The Holtslag et al. (1990) scheme and NCAR CCM3 (Kiehl et al., 1996) radiation scheme are used for the planetary boundary layer, and the NCAR CLM3.5 is used for the land surface model (Olseson et al., 2008). To minimize the systematic errors that occur in long-term simulations over large domains, spectral nudging is applied to RegCM4 (Von Storch et al., 2000). The other physics used the default of RegCM4

img5. Experimental Setup

In this study, two types of simulations using RegCM4 were performed. One is a current climate simulation for the evaluation of simulation skill of RegCM4 with a general circulation model output. The other is future climate simulation for the projection of future climate under the two emission scenarios, representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. The simulation periods for the current and future climate simulations are 27-year (from 1979 to 2005) and 45-year (from 2006 to 2050), respectively. And the model output of HadGEM2-AO produced by the National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR)/Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) under two IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) RCP4.5/8.5 scenarios were used as an initial and boundary conditions. RCP scenarios are the latest emission scenarios recommended to use for the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of IPCC. To participate in CMIP5 (phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) with new global climate change scenarios based on RCP, the NIMR/ KMA simulated the several experiments such as preindustrial control run, historical run, and RCP scenarios (2.6, 4.5, 6.0, 8.5) run for long term projection recommended by CMIP5 using the coupled global atmosphere-ocean model, HadGEM2-AO. Details of HadGEM2-AO are given by Collins et al. (2011), and the results of the HadGEM2-AO CMIP5 experiment by NIMR/KMA are shown in Baek et al. (2012).

img6. References

  •        Climate change in the 21st 12 Century simulated by HadGEM2-AO under representative concentration pathways, submitted to
           APJAS.

  •        Development and evaluation of an Earth-system model – HadGEM2, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 4, 997–1062, doi:10.5194/gmdd-
           4-997-2011.

  •        A scheme for representing cumulus convection in large-scale models. J. Climate, 48, 2313-2335.

  •        Development of a second generation regional climate model (RegCM2). I. Boundary layer and radiative transfer processes. Mon.
           Wea. Rev. 121, 2794-2813.

  •        Development of a second generation regional climate model (RegCM2). II. Convective processes and assimilation of lateral
           boundary conditions. Mon. Wea. Rev. 121, 2814-2832.

  •        RegCM4: model description and preliminary test over multi CORDEX domain, Clim. Res., 52, 7-29.

  •        A description of the fifth generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). National Center for Atmospheric Research Tech
           Note NCAR/TN-298 + STR, NCAR, Boulder, CO.

  •        Impact of boundary conditions and cumulus parameterization schemes on regional climate simulation over South-Korea in the
           CORDEX-East Asia domain using the RegCM4 model. J. Korean Ear. Sci. Soc., 32, 373-387.

  •        Simulation skills of RegCM4 for regional climate over CORDEX East Asia driven by HadGEM2-AO. Jour. Korean Earth Sci. Soc., 32(7),
           732-749.

  •        A high resolution air mass transformation model for short-range weather forecasting. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1561- 1575.

  •        Description of NCAR Community Climate Model(CCM3). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-420+STR, 152 pp.

  •        Improvements to the community land model and their impact on the hydrological cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 113, G01021,
           doi:10.1029/2007JG000563.

  •        A spectral nudging technique for dynamical downscaling purposes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3664-3673, doi: 1175/1520- 0493.
Fig. 1. Model domain and topography (m) for the 50 km gird spacing.

Model domain and topography (m) for the 50km gird spacing.

Model configuration used in this study.

Contents Description
Domain CORDEX framework
- 50-km horizontal resolution
- Central Lat. and Lon. : 22.04°N, 118.96°E
- 197 (Lat.) × 243 (Lon.)
Vertical layers (top) 18 sigma (74 hPa)
PBL scheme Holtslag
CPS MIT-Emanuel
Land Surface Model NCAR CLM 3.5
Radiation NCAR CCM3
BCs HadGEM2-AO (Historical, RCP4.5/8.5)
Spectral nudging Yes
Simulation period Current: Jan. 1979 - Dec. 2005
Future : Jan. 2006 - Dec. 2050 (RCP4.5/8.5)

img Contact information

img  Dong-kyu Lee (dklee@snu.ac.kr),
  - Department of Earth and Enviromental Sciences, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742,     South Korea.
img1. Overall

SNU-MM5(Seoul National University Meso-scale Model version 5)(Lee et al. 2004) is based on version 5 of the Penn State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Meso-scale Model (MM5) (Grell 1994) and the community land model version 3 (CLM3) is an advanced and comprehensive land surface model. The spectral nudging technique (von Storch et al. 2000) was performed an alternative to the modified relaxation method (Liang et al. 2001) reducing systematic bias. Planetary boundary layer scheme of the Yonsei University (YSU) was added to the SNU-MM5 for better simulation of precipitation over the ocean (Cha et al. 2008).SNU-MM5 and SNURCM(Seoul National University Regional Climate Model) are the same model.

img2. Domain and Resolution

The model domain(Fig. 1) follows a protocol of the Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) for Asia, includes north-south direction from Australia in the north to Russia and east-west direction from west of the Tibetan Plateau to western Pacific. The number of grid points is 233 (west-east) by 197 (north-south) horizontal grids centering at 22.04°N and 118.96°E with a nominal horizontal resolution of 50 km. A 24-level terrain-following (sigma) vertical grid frome the surface to the model top of 70 hPa is used.

img3. Dynamics

SNU-MM5 dynamics is based on the MM5. The MM5 uses a nonhydrostaric primitive equation system with a terrain-following sigma vertical coordinate, which is a well-studied mesoscale model that has been applied widely in atmospheric study. A spectral nudging technique of Von Storch et al. (2000) was implemented for lateral boundary handling. The technique is applied to the entire model domain, while the relaxation method is applied only to the lateral buffer zone.

img4. Physics

The physical parameterization schemes used in this study are the Kain-Fritsch cumulus convective parameterization scheme (Kain and Fritsch 1990), the Reisner Ⅱ explicit moisture scheme (Reisner et al. 1998), the CCM2 radiative transfer scheme (Briegleb 1992), the CLM3 land surface model (Bonan et al. 2002), and the YSU planetary boundary layer scheme (Hong et al. 2006). (table 1)

img5. Experimental Setup

This experiments produced the present 26-yesrs regional climate (1980-2005) and assessed the systematic bias caused by HadGEM2-AO. Also 45-years future climate simulations (2006-2049) were produced using SNU-MM5 with the HadGEM2-AO following the lateral boundary forcing of two AR5 representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. This scenarios are the latest emission scenarios recommended to use for the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of IPCC. To participate in the phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) with new global climate change scenarios based on RCP, the NIMR/ KMA simulated the several experiments such as preindustrial control run, historical run, and RCP scenarios (2.6, 4.5, 6.0, 8.5) run for long term projection recommended by CMIP5 using the coupled HadGEM2-AO.

Fig. 1.  Model domain

Model domain

SNU-MM5 configurations for the present climate simulation using the HadGEM2-AO data.

Contents Description
SNU-MM5
Vertical layers (top) 24 sigma (70 hPa)
Cumulus parameterization scheme(CPS) Kain-Fritch
Explicit moisture scheme(EMS) Reisner2
Radiation CCM2 package
Planetary boundary layer (PBL) YSU
Land surface model(LSM) NCAR CLM3
Spectral nudging Yes

img Contact information

img  Dong-kyu Lee (dklee@snu.ac.kr),
  - Department of Earth and Enviromental Sciences, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742,     South Korea.
img1. Overall

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model is a mesoscale numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both operational forecasting and atmospheric research needs. It features multiple dynamical cores a 3-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system, a software architecture allowing for computational parallelism and system extensibility(www.wrf-model.org). In this study, we utilized WRF3.2 by applying the spectral nudging technique (von Storch et al. 2000) suitable for long-term climate simulations(Choi 2010).

img2. Domain and Resolution

The model domain(Fig. 1) follows a protocol of the Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) for Asia, includes north-south direction from Australia in the north to Russia and east-west direction from west of the Tibetan Plateau to western Pacific. The number of grid points is 233 (west-east) by 197 (north-south) horizontal grids centering at 22.04°N and 118.96°E with a nominal horizontal resolution of 50 km. A 27-level terrain-following (sigma) vertical grid from the surface to the model top of 70 hPa is used.

img3. Dynamics

The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) and Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM) are dynamical cores which include mostly advection pressure-gradients, coriolis, buoyancy, filters, diffusion and time-stepping. Both are nonhydrostatic Eulerian dynamical cores with terrain-following pressuer-based vertical coordinates. ARW dynamical core designed for research as well as NWP. NMM dynamical core used in NCEP operational regional models.

img4. Physics

The physical parameterization schemes used in this study are the Kain-Fritsch cumulus convective parameterization scheme (Kain and Fritsch 1990), the Reisner Ⅱ explicit moisture scheme (Reisner et al. 1998), the Unified Noah land surface model and the YSU planetary boundary layer scheme (Hong et al. 2006). Longwave radiative transfer scheme is RRTM and shortwave radiative transfer scheme is Dudhia.

img5. Experimental Setup

This experiments produced the present 26-yesrs regional climate (1980-2005) and assessed the systematic bias caused by HadGEM2-AO. Also 45-years future climate simulations (2006-2049) were produced using SNU-MM5 with the HadGEM2-AO following the lateral boundary forcing of two AR5 representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. This scenarios are the latest emission scenarios recommended to use for the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of IPCC. To participate in the phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) with new global climate change scenarios based on RCP, the NIMR/ KMA simulated the several experiments such as preindustrial control run, historical run, and RCP scenarios (2.6, 4.5, 6.0, 8.5) run for long term projection recommended by CMIP5 using the coupled HadGEM2-AO.

Fig. 1.  Model domain

Model domain

SNU-WRF configurations for the present climate simulation.

Contents Description
SNU-WRF
Vertical layers (top) 27 sigma (70 hPa)
Cumulus parameterization scheme(CPS) Betts-Miller-Janjic(BM)/Fain-Fritch(KF)/Grell-Devenyi(GD)
Explicit moisture scheme(EMS) WSM3/WSM6
Radiation RRTM and Dudhia
Planetary boundary layer (PBL) YSU
Land surface model(LSM) Unified Noah
Spectral nudging Yes

img Contact information

img  Seon-Yong Lee (lsy@korea.kr),
  - Climate Research Laboratory, National Institute of Meteorological Research, 33 Seohobuk-ro, Seogwipo-si, Jeju-do,     Korea.

img  Jin-Uk Kim (jukim86@korea.kr),
  - Climate Research Laboratory, National Institute of Meteorological Research, 33 Seohobuk-ro, Seogwipo-si, Jeju-do,     Korea.
img1. Overall

National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) is participating in the CORDEX with a regional climate model, HadGEM3-RA which is based on the global atmospheric HadGEM3 of the Met Office Hadley Centre (MOHC). Configuration of HadGEM3-RA is almost same as the HadGEM3-A (See sections 3 and 4), except that the dynamic settings are taken from the operational limited area model. Detailed descriptions for dynamics core and physical packages are described in Davies et al. (2005) and Martin et al. (2006).

img2. Domain and Resolution

The configuration of the model domain follows a protocol of the Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) for Asia (Giorgi et al., 2009). The model domain includes East Asia, India, the Western Pacific Ocean, and the northern part of Australia, as shown in Fig. 1. The number of grid points is 220 (west-east) by 183 (north-south), with a horizontal resolution 0.44 degree (approximately 50km). The buffer zone for lateral boundary conditions is 8 grids at each direction, where is located between outer solid line and blue dotted line in Fig. 1. For high-resolution experiments, the number of grid points is 184 (west-east) by 164 (north-south) without 8-grids lateral boundary zone and the horizontal resolution is selected to 0.11°, about 12.5 km (red dotted line in Fig. 1).

img3. Dynamics

The dynamic core of HadGEM3-RA is a nonhydrostatic, fully compressible, deep atmosphere formulation using a terrain-following, height-based vertical coordinate. It includes semi-Lagrangian advection of all prognostic variables except density, permitting relatively long time steps to be used at high resolution. The model uses the Arakawa-C grid in which the zonal and meridional wind components are staggered as well as the momentum and thermodynamic variables. HadGEM3-RA runs on a Charney-Phillips vertical grid in which the momentum and thermodynamic variables are staggered (Davies et al., 2005; Martin et al., 2006).

img4. Physics

Model physics are summarized in Table 1. Detailed descriptions for dynamics core and physical packages are described in Davies et al. (2005) and Martin et al. (2006).

img5. Experimental Setup

The experiments are conducted for 151 years; 56-year simulation for the current (1950-2005) climate and two types of 95-year simulations for the future (2006-2100) climate. The current climate simulation is driven from the historical run of the Atmosphere-Ocean coupled Hadley Center Global Environmental Model version 2 (HadGEM2-AO) simulation of the National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) (Baek et al., 2012).

For the future climate simulations, two different boundary conditions from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios of HadGEM2-AO. The RCP 4.5 scenario is a stabilization scenario in which total radiative forcing is stabilized before 2100 through the employment of a range of technologies and strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (Thomson et al., 2011). The RCP 8.5 scenario is characterized by increasing greenhouse gas emissions over time and is representative of scenarios in the literature which result in high greenhouse gas concentration levels (Riahi et al., 2011).

img6. References

  •        Climate change in the 21st Century simulated by HadGEM2-AO under representative concentration pathways. Asia-Pacific J. Atmos.
           Sci. (to be submitted).

  •        A new dynamical core for the Met Office’s global and regional modeling of the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131,1759-
           1782.

  •        Addressing climate information needs at the regional level: The CORDEX framework. World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
           Bulletin, 58, 175-183.

  •        The physical properties of the atmosphere in the new Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM1). Part I: Model
           description and global climatology. J. Clim 19, 1274-1302.

  •        RCP 8.5—A scenario of comparatively high greenhouse gas emissions. Climatic Change, 109, 33-57, doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0149-
           y.

  •        RCP4.5: a pathway for stabilization of radiative forcing by 2100. Climatic Change, 109, 77-94. doi: 10.1007/s10584-011-0151-4.
Fig. 1. Model domain and orography (m).

Model domain and orography (m).

Summary of configuration of the HadGEM3-RA

Description
Radiation General 2-stream radiation (Edwards and Slingo 1996; Cusack et al. 1999a)
Boundary layer Nonlocal mixing scheme for unstable layers (Lock et al. 2000). Local Richardson number scheme for stable layers (Smith 1990)
Microphysics Mixed phase scheme including prognostic ice content; solves physical equations for microphysical processes using particle size information (Wilson and Ballard 1999)
Convection Revised mass flux scheme from Gregory and Rowntree (1990) including triggering of deep and shallow cumulus convection based on the boundary layer scheme, parameterized entrainment/detrainment rates for shallow convection (Grant and Brown 1999), and the treatment of momentum transports by deep and shallow convection based on an eddy viscosity model.
Gravity wave drag Orographic scheme including flow blocking (Webster et al. 2003)
Land surface MOSES-II (Essery et al. 2003); nine surface tile types plus coastal tiling
Clouds Smith (1990) scheme using parameterized RH-crit (Cusack et al. 1999b)